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Microstructural characterization is usually achieved by allowing some form of probe to interact with a carefully prepared specimen. The most commonly used probes are visible light, X-ray radiation, a high-energy electron beam, or a sharp, flexible needle.

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These four types of probe form the basis for optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy. Microstructural Characterization of Materials, 2nd Edition is an introduction to the expertise involved in assessing the microstructure of engineering materials and to the experimental methods used for this purpose.

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Similar to the first edition, this 2nd edition explores the methodology of materials characterization under the three headings of crystal structure, microstructural morphology, and microanalysis. Different techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction EBSD provide different information, but they all are limited to essentially two-dimensional views of the structure.

To understand these aspects of structure we need a true, three-dimensional representation of the material. In our group, we are tackling this problem in two ways. First, we have built an instrument for automated serial sectioning and EBSD analysis of materials. In serial sectioning we image a section through a material, then remove a layer of controlled thickness to reveal what was under the original surface and image that. We can work our way down through the material, taking images of each section, and then reconstruct the images into a 3D representation of the structure, as illustrated here:.

Ghosh et al. There are several ways to do serial sectioning, but in our case, we have integrated a pulse femtosecond laser with a scanning electron microscope:. To image the material in 3D, we raster the laser beam over the sample surface. The extremely short laser pulses vaporize the surface without significantly heating the material underneath. X-ray Diffraction Methods.

Diffraction Analysis. Electron Diffraction. Optical Microscopy. Geometrical Optics. Construction of the Microscope.

Microstructural Characterization of Materials

Specimen Preparation. Image contrast. Working with Digital Images.

Microstructural Characterization of Porous Clay-Based Ceramic Composites

Resolution, contrast and Image Interpretation. Transmission Electron Microscopy. Basic Principles. The Origin of Contrast. Kinematic Interpretation of Diffraction Contrast. Dynamic Diffraction and Absorption effects.

Lattice Imaging at High Resolution. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

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Scanning Electron Microscopy. Components of The Scanning electron Microscope. Electron Beam-Specimen Interactions. Electron Excitation of X-Rays.

Microstructural Characterization of Materials

Backscattered Electrons. Secondary Electron Emission. Alternative Imaging Modes.

Specimen Preparation and Topology. Focused Ion Beam Microscopy.